Your Domain Name Servers commonly known as DNS are the servers that host the information associated with your domain. They are registered to join the Domain Name System and will comprise of series of servers across the world.
When you purchase a domain the Domain Name Server will host all the necessary information to point to any other services that you will be using with that domain e.g. Website, Email services.
So typically your domain might be www.domainname.co.uk , com, .de or .london for example. Anything associated with that domain will be registered and controlled via a control panel on that DNS.
Once a domain is registered the registration details associated with the owner of that Domain will be stored in the Who IS register.
Typically a DNS will consist of the following formats:
DNS Root Servers
DNS servers are organised in a hierarchy and at the very highest of the DNS servers are the aptly named DNS root servers. The DNS root servers store a database of all the Internet domain names.
Each domain name will have a corresponding IP address. There are 13 root servers named from A to M. These servers are deployed in the US, Japan, UK and Sweden.
How do DNS work?
The 13 root servers contain the complete database of names and addresses.
Other DNS servers are at a lower hierarchy and are maintained by organisations and Internet Service Providers (ISP’s). The DNS system works by the information being in a distributed format across the network of servers. Google and Amazon for example have their own DNS distributed around the world.
The architecture used in the DNS system is a client – server architecture. If you enter a search on your Firefox or Safari browser for example this issues requests to your internet service providers (ISP) DNS servers.
If that DNS server does not hold that piece of information it then passes that request onto another server. That DNS acting for the first client automatically passes that request to another DNS server or until the request eventually arrives at a DNS server that has the name and IP address in its database that matches. This information retrieved then passes all the way through the chain of DNS servers to the original client.